NOTE: Please understand that we have transitioned
from the CA State Standards (example: 3a, 3b) to align with the
Next Generation Science Standards (example: ESS2-1, ESS1-5) so
although many of these topics/standards are similar, they are
not exactly the same as what we will cover in class. The Next
Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are listed after each topic
and the previous California State Standards (CA) are listed
below the NGSS.
This page has all of the topics covered in Physical Science for
the year. Some topics will be linked to other websites for more
in-depth information and most will have the chapter with the
This page is also helpful for
ideas on what to do your Not Necessarily
Current Event (NNCE).
will slowly be updated as I gather more resources to which to
link - extra participation credit will be given if you find
something and bring it to me so I can link it)
If you are curious and look ahead before we even
cover the material, hooray for you!
Each of these standards
has a rubric illustrating what is expected to achieve each
level (0-4). CLICK HERE TO SEE THESE
(they will be handed out in class: the first copy is free,
if you lose it, a new one will cost you ten cents or you can
use the link and print one yourself))
Academic Physical Science Text (Ch.);
Sheltered Physical Science
Tectonics/Plate Boundaries Develop a model based on
scientific evidence that explains the different layers of the
Earth and describes the cycling of matter by mantle
convection. Analyze scientific
evidence and develop a model that explains the process of
plate tectonics, the various continental and ocean-floor
features that form at the three plate boundaries, and the
ages of crustal rock. NGSS: ESS2-1, 3;
ESS1-5 http://www.nextgenscience.org/hsess2-earth-systems http://www.nextgenscience.org/hsess1-earth-place-universe
CA State Standards: 3a, b
Dynamic Earth Processes 3.
Plate tectonics operating over geologic time has changed the
patterns of land, sea, and mountains on Earth’s surface. a.
Features of the ocean floor (magnetic
patterns, age, and sea-floor topography) provide evidence of plate
20) [Ch. 21] b.
The principal structures that form at the three different kinds of
plate boundaries (convergent, divergent, transform) c.
Explain the properties of rocks based on the physical and chemical
conditions in which they formed, including plate tectonic
Why and how earthquakes occur and the scales used to measure their
intensity and magnitude. e.
There are two kinds of volcanoes:
one kind with violent eruptions producing steep slopes and the
other kind with voluminous lava flows producing gentle slopes.
Resources/Hazards Evaluate the geologic basis
of natural resources and hazards in California, competing
designs for the use of these natural resources based on
cost-benefit ratios, and how natural resources and hazards
have influenced human activity over time.
Explain the relationships between natural resource
management, the sustainability of human populations and
CA State Standards: 9a, b, c
California Geology 9.
The geology of California underlies the state’s wealth of
natural resources as well as its natural hazards. a.
of major economic importance in California and their relation to
California’s geology (water, minerals, oil, gas,
energy-geothermal, wind, all types of production of electricity
(Ch.19) [Ch. 20]) b.
The principal natural
hazards in different California regions and the geologic
basis of those hazards (earthquakes, volcanoes, flooding, fire
hazard, landslides, tsunami) c.
Importance of water to society, the origins of California’s fresh
water, and the relationship between supply and need. (water cycle)
(Here's a cool pic of the Earth's
lights from space. We don't necessarily cover this in
class, but it shows population distribution throughout the
world) November/December: Atmospheric Structure,
Evolution, And Human Impacts Explain how the Earth’s atmosphere, surface
and organisms have coevolved together over time.
Analyze and evaluate global climate models and data to
show human impacts on global warming and forecast how
global warming may change our Earth’s systems in the
CA State Standards: 8a, b, c & 4 Structure
of the Atmosphere 8.
Life has changed Earth’s atmosphere, and changes in the
atmosphere affect conditions for life. a.
Thermal structure and chemical composition of the
17-21) [Ch. 11] b.
How the composition of Earth’s atmosphere has evolved over
geologic time and know the effect of outgassing, the variations of
carbon dioxide concentration, and the origin of atmospheric
oxygen. c. The location of the ozone layer in
the upper atmosphere, its role in absorbing ultraviolet radiation,
and the way in which this layer varies both naturally and in
response to human activities. (Ch.
17) [Ch. 13] Energy
in the Earth System 4.
Energy enters the Earth system primarily as solar radiation and
eventually escapes as heat. a.
The relative amount of incoming solar energy compared with Earth’s
internal energy and the energy used by society. b.
The fate of incoming solar radiation in terms of reflection,
absorption, and photosynthesis. c.
The different atmospheric gases that absorb the Earth’s thermal
radiation and the mechanism and significance of the greenhouse
17) [Ch. 13]
January/February: Climate Describe how variations of energy
flow into and out of Earth’s geosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere,
and biosphere affect and change climate. Differentiate the causes and
effects of sudden climatic changes (over 1-10 years), intermediate
(over 10 – 100,000’s of years), and long-term
changes (over millions of years or longer) over time.
CA State Standards: 5a, b, c. d; 6a, b, c, d 5.
Heating of Earth’s surface and atmosphere by the sun drives
convection within the atmosphere and oceans, producing winds and
ocean currents. a.
Differential heating of Earth results in circulation patterns in
the atmosphere and oceans that globally distribute the heat. (Ch. 14-16)
[Ch. 10] b.
The relationship between the rotation of Earth and the circular
motions of ocean currents and air in pressure
The origin and effects of temperature inversions. (Ch.
17) [Ch. ]
Properties of ocean water, such as temperature and salinity, can
be used to explain the layered structure of the oceans, the
generation of horizontal and vertical ocean currents, and the
geographic distribution of marine organisms. e.
Rain forests and deserts on Earth are distributed in bands at
specific latitudes. 6.
Climate is the long-term average of a region’s weather and
depends on many factors. a.
Weather (in the short run) and climate (in the long run) involve
the transfer of energy into and out of the atmosphere. (Ch. 21) [Ch. 12-13] b.
The effects on climate of latitude, elevation, topography, and
proximity to large bodies of water and cold or warm ocean
currents. (Ch. 21) [Ch. 12-13] c.
How Earth’s climate has changed over time, corresponding to
changes in Earth’s geography, atmospheric composition, and other
factors, such as solar radiation and plate movement.
February/March: Carbon/Nitrogen Cycles Develop a
model that demonstrates how carbon and nitrogen cycle between
the hydrosphere, atmosphere, geosphere, and biosphere.
and make a claim that any change in the carbon or nitrogen cycle
can create feedbacks that cause changes to other areas in the
NGSS: ESS2-6; ESS2-2 http://www.nextgenscience.org/hsess2-earth-systems CA State Standards: 5a, b, c. d; 6a, b, c, d
Biogeochemical Cycles 7.
Each element on Earth moves among reservoirs, which exist in the
solid earth, in oceans, in the atmosphere, and within and among
organisms as part of biogeochemical cycles. a.
The carbon cycle of photosynthesis and respiration and the
nitrogen cycle. b.
The global carbon cycle: the different physical and chemical forms
of carbon in the atmosphere, oceans, biomass, fossil fuels, and
the movement of carbon among these reservoirs. c.
The movement of matter among reservoirs is driven by Earth’s
internal and external sources of energy.
March/April: Solar System Compare and contrast the
location, composition and formation of the Sun, terrestrial
planets, and gaseous (Jovian) planets in our solar system over
time by evaluating evidence from Earth rocks, meteorite
impacts and other planetary and lunar surface.
Predict the motion of orbiting objects in the solar
system using Newton’s gravitational laws of attraction and
Kepler’s laws of planetary motion.
NGSS: ESS1-1; ESS1-4;
ESS1-6 http://www.nextgenscience.org/hsess1-earth-place-universe CA State Standards: 1a-1f Earth’s
in the Universe 1.Astronomy
and planetary exploration reveal the solar system’s structure,
scale, and change over time. a.
The differences and similarities among the sun, the terrestrial
planets, and the gas planets may have been established during the
formation of the solar system. b. Evidence from Earth and
moon rocks indicates that the solar
system was formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas
approximately 4.6 billion years ago. c. Evidence from geological
studies of Earth and other planets suggest that the early Earth
was very different from Earth today. d.
Evidence indicating that the planets are much closer to Earth than
the stars are. e.
The Sun is a typical star and is powered by nuclear reactions,
primarily the fusion of hydrogen to form helium. (Ch. 11-16) [Ch. 11] f.
Evidence for the dramatic effects that asteroid impacts have had
in shaping the surface of planets and their moons and in mass
extinctions of life on Earth. (Ch. 23) [Ch. 17]
April/May: Stars/Galaxies Diagram
and explain all the stages in the life cycle of a star and how
stars produce all the elements and matter in our univers.
Construct an explanation of the Big Bang Theory by analyzing
current evidence (light spectra, galaxy motion, and matter
composition in the universe.
ESS1-1; ESS1-2; ESS1-3 http://www.nextgenscience.org/hsess1-earth-place-universe CA State Standards: 2a, 2b,
2c, 2d 2.
Earth-based and space-based
astronomy reveal the structure, scale, and changes in
stars, galaxies, and the universe over time. As a basis for
understanding this concept: a.
The solar system is located in an outer edge of the disc-shaped
Milky Way galaxy, which spans 100,000 light years. b.
Galaxies are made of billions of stars and comprise most of the
visible mass of the universe. c.
Evidence indicating that all elements with an atomic number
greater than that of lithium have been formed by nuclear fusion in
Stars differ in their life cycles and that visual, radio, and
X-ray telescopes may be used to collect data that reveal those
Even though astrographics.com
is a shopping site, it has some great pics
of nebulae, galaxies, HST photos
All Year: A. Investigation and Experimentation 1.
progress is made by asking meaningful questions and conducting
careful investigations. a.
Select and use appropriate tools and technology (such as
computer-linked probes, spreadsheets, and graphing calculators) to
perform tests, collect data, analyze relationships, and display
Identify and communicate sources of unavoidable experimental
Identify possible reasons for inconsistent results, such as
sources of error or uncontrolled conditions. d.
Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence. e.
Solve scientific problems by using quadratic equations and simple
trigonometric, exponential, and logarithmic functions. f.
Distinguish between hypothesis and theory as scientific terms. g.
Recognize the usefulness and limitations of models and theories as
scientific representations of reality. h.
Read and interpret topographic and geologic maps. i.
Analyze the locations, sequences, or time intervals that are
characteristic of natural phenomena (e.g., relative ages of rocks,
locations of planets over time, and succession of species in an
Recognize the issues of statistical variability and the need for
controlled tests. k.
Recognize the cumulative nature of scientific evidence. l.
Analyze situations and solve problems that require combining and
applying concepts from more than one area of science. m.
Investigate a science-based societal issue by researching the
literature, analyzing data, and communicating the findings.
Examples of issues include irradiation of food, cloning of animals
by somatic cell nuclear transfer, choice of energy sources, and
land and water use decisions in California. n. Know that when an observation does
not agree with an accepted scientific theory, the observation is
sometimes mistaken or fraudulent (e.g., the Piltdown Man fossil or
unidentified flying objects) and that the theory is sometimes
wrong (e.g., the Ptolemaic model of the movement of the Sun, Moon,